Physical inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle predispose individuals to cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. In individuals who are physically inactive, the impact of a sedentary lifestyle on CVD risk conceivably more than doubles the likelihood of premature death compared with individuals who are even modestly physically active. Epidemiological and well-controlled clinical studies conclusively show that physical activity, and the fitness it confers, favorably modifies conventional risk factors such as high blood pressure, abnormal blood lipids/lipoproteins, obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Physical activity is also vital in the treatment of individuals who have known or suspected CVD, including those who have had a myocardial infarction or undergone coronary revascularization. In these patient subsets, it provides independent and additive benefits ...

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