The notion of a common clustering of metabolic risk factors, now clinically recognized as the metabolic syndrome, was described as early as 1923. However, it was not until the late 1980s that the constellation of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension was first recognized as a unique clinical entity, while abdominal obesity was later added as a component of the syndrome. Although the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome remains elusive, both insulin resistance and abdominal, specifically visceral, adiposity have been proposed as causative factors in the development of the condition.

Currently, no universally accepted definition of the metabolic syndrome exists. Instead, various organizations including the World Health Organization (WHO), the National Cholesterol Education Program, and the International Diabetes Federation have developed unique definitions. Although the criteria and ...

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