Hypertension affects more than 50 million individuals in the United States and is a major risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), including stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and chronic heart failure, as well as renal failure. Hypertension remains relatively poorly controlled in the United States, despite major advances in pharmacological therapy and in our understanding of the importance of blood pressure control for reducing morbidity and mortality. The risk of developing hypertension in American adults who are older than 50 years is close to 90%, with blacks having a higher risk of developing hypertension as well as hypertension-related complications than nonblacks. Currently, pharmacotherapy serves as the core intervention for the treatment of hypertension, even though lifestyle modifications have been shown ...

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