Stoicism is the term applied to a philosophical movement that dominated Greek and Roman thought from the 3rd century B.C. to the 3rd century A.D. Its central doctrines include self-discipline, natural law, resistance to tyranny, and an unconditional commitment to duty.

The name Stoic derives from the Stoa Poikilé, the colonnade in Athens where the movement was founded. The most important of the early Stoic philosophers are Zeno, the school's founder—usually called Zeno of Citium to avoid confusion with Zeno of Elea, author of the famous paradoxes of motion—and Chrysippus, a logician who so thoroughly reworked Stoic doctrine as to earn the title of “second founder.” Unfortunately, the writings of these and other early Stoics are lost and must be reconstructed from ancient reports and quotations. ...

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