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There has not been much sociolegal research in Belgium outside of the area of criminal justice, particularly as conducted by centers for criminology. Belgium has been a constitutional monarchy since its independence in 1830. Originally a unitary state, it has gradually become a complex federal state due to cultural and economic differences and conflicts between the Flemish (Dutch-speaking) north and the Walloon (French-speaking) south. In the 1993 constitutional reform, the first article of the constitution was modified to read: “Belgium is a Federal State that consists of Communities and Regions.” The three communities are the Flemish Community, comprising the Flemish provinces and the Dutch-speaking population of Brussels; the French Community, composed of the French-speaking inhabitants of Brussels; and the Walloon provinces, with the exception of ...

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