All countries today have complex government department and agency structures that employ thousands and sometimes millions of workers. Modern economic organizations are similarly complex with great variety in size, purpose, and methods. Most simply, one can classify the people who work for these entities as workers or managers. The former are “human resources,” using a term derived from economics, and the latter have the task of “managing” those workers. In the discipline of public administration, improving and sustaining worker productivity translates into methods for enhancing the human resources (HR) function. Studies show that the work environment exerts a great impact on manager and employee success.

HR administrative regulations and policies are important in improving employment practices and have today evolved into the development of HR law. ...

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