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One cannot consider contemporary Egyptian law a mere instrument of imperialist domination. Although the system was originally the product of legal transplants, it “Egyptianized” itself and has transformed into a full-fledged judicial apparatus and legal order. The Montreux Agreement (1937) abolished consular and mixed courts and made national courts responsible in all cases.

Administrative courts were created in 1946 and a constitutional court in 1969. The government abolished religious courts in 1955 and personal status matters entered the jurisdiction of specialized divisions of ordinary courts. After the Revolution of July 1952 and the establishment of the Republic, the state instituted several new jurisdictions. In the 1970s and 1980s, the revolutionary and socialist regime evolved into an economically liberal one, which explains how the Supreme Constitutional Court ...

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