Confounding is a pervasive problem for drawing inferences about political causes and effects. In brief, some individuals, countries, or other units are exposed to a “treatment” or “intervention,” while others are not. Differences in outcomes may reflect the effect of treatment, ...

  • Loading...
locked icon

Sign in to access this content

Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

  • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
  • Read modern, diverse business cases
  • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles