Since its conception, Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama's self-construal theory has been one of the most popular theoretical frameworks in cross-cultural psychology. Self-construal research primarily focuses on how the individual's self differs across cultures. A self-construal can be defined as a constellation of thoughts, feelings, and actions concerning the relationship of the self to others and the self as distinct from others. Self-construals are presumed to mediate the influence of culture. Since Markus and Kitayama introduced the concept of the independent and interdependent self to ...

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