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As officials in colleges and universities seek ways to discourage and eliminate drug use on campus, testing students for drugs has become increasingly common. Beginning in the military, private and public sector employment, and drug rehabilitation programs, drug testing had worked its way into educational institutions by the mid-1980s. Even though drug use is not uncommon on many campuses, the reported litigation involving student drug testing in higher education has all been within the realm of intercollegiate athletics. While the U.S. Supreme Court has not addressed the issue of drug testing student-athletes in higher education, it has resolved two cases on point in high school settings. This entry examines judicial opinions on the constitutionality of drug testing of student-athletes who voluntarily participate in intercollegiate sports.

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