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The concept of academic freedom, although not enumerated in the First Amendment, is based on freedom of speech and applies generally to all levels of education. In its broadest sense, academic freedom is the right to teach or speak freely without reprisal. Disputes over classroom content and methodology typically pit the more commonly recognized faculty academic freedom to teach what and how educators deem appropriate against the institutional academic freedom of colleges and universities to determine the curriculum and programs on their campuses. Educators presume that academic freedom provides greater protection of their campus actions than case law supports. Based on the notion that academic freedom applies to institutions rather than individuals, courts generally side with colleges and universities when faculty members refuse to follow ...

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