Composting toilets usually require the addition of a bulking agent like sawdust after each use and have a wide range of design complexity. They can decrease household water use by one-third or more.


A composting (dry or biological) toilet is a waterless sewage treatment system that decomposes human excreta into an inert, nitrogen-rich material similar to humus. Because they eliminate the water use associated with typical toilets, composting toilets circumvent the costs associated with traditional sewage treatment. By holding and processing waste material on-site, they capture nutrients in human waste for local reuse. They are well suited to rural areas and water-scarce regions, but they are increasingly used in institutional and urban settings. This includes environmentally conscious users who are seeking to decrease their impact on ...

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