Zero-energy building (ZEB) or net zero-energy building are general terms applied to buildings with zero net energy consumption and zero carbon emissions, calculated over a period of time. ZEBs usually use less energy than traditional buildings, as well as generating their own energy on site to use in the building; hence, many are independent from the national (electricity) grid. They are in response to ever more stringent environmental standards, both regulatory and voluntary, introduced to address increasingly significant environmental issues such as climate change, resources, pollution, ecology, and population. Many people in developing countries (and elsewhere) already live in zero-energy buildings out of necessity, including huts, tents, and caves exposed to temperature extremes and without access to electricity. The energy in the building can be ...

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