The term university-industrial complex refers to the close connections between universities and industry that are a feature of the intellectual landscape in many countries, but especially in the United States. The 19th-century Industrial Revolution saw the emergence of new civic universities in Britain and Germany that were to train workers for the new age of manufacturing. This marked a shift from the craft traditions that had dominated the intellectual landscape of medieval Europe into the systematic application of scientific advance for industrial purposes. State support for the university often took the form of technical universities that were meant to train workers. University–industry linkages in this period focused on certain key departments such as chemistry, and the university laboratory was the major source of new ...

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