This article presents an overview of the environmental values, knowledge, and subsistence strategies of indigenous peoples both in their traditional contexts and in the contexts of colonialism and globalization. It discusses the current status of indigenous peoples in line with the 2007 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. It outlines indigenous environmental activism and precedent-setting legal cases. Finally, it discusses the model of biocultural diversity illustrated in Indigenous Conservation Areas that indigenous peoples manage and protect in line with traditional human–nature partnerships.
Historical Placement of Indigenous Peoples in the Human Timeline
This indigenous political group called the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) protested the 2002 summit of the Free Trade Area of the Americas in Quito, Ecuador, on October 31, 2002.