Ecology is possibly one of the most ancient disciplines. Its evolution has been gradual, and it will continue to evolve with humankind's ability to comprehend and understand his own surroundings and the interaction of its components. Rooted in the Greek word oikos, which means home, the subject shares its origin with the study of economics. The term ecology is fairly recent, coined by German biologist Ernst Haeckel in 1869. It is pertinent for students of ecology to deeply appreciate its fundamental principles, subdivisions, constraints, and challenges and some of the recent breakthroughs ecologists have made in advancing the subject.

Engagements with the basic tenets of ecology have a long history, with some of the earliest written reflections of the natural world in the writings of Greek ...

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