Ecologism is generally considered to be an ideological position that advocates a transformation in human–nature relations, challenges anthropocentric values, emphasizes respect for natural limits, and calls for significant social and economic change. However, the term has a range of divergent definitions and can encompass a spectrum of ideas. Despite this, it has been argued that ecologism is sufficiently comprehensive and systematic to be considered a distinctive new ideology, and this idea is now relatively widely accepted.

Understandings of ecologism can be grouped into two schools, known as “minimalist” and “maximalist.” In a minimalist approach, the terms environmentalism and ecologism are often used interchangeably. Either term can be used as an umbrella term, encompassing a spectrum that runs from “light green” or “ecological modernization” at one extreme ...

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