The term neurobehavioral disease (ND) refers to a cluster of disorders, primarily with behavioral (and cognitive) dysfunctions that develop as a result of underlying neurobio-logical pathology. Classically included in the Axis II type of disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, 1994), these diseases form a substantive part of pediatric psychiatry. Although the term ND is relatively novel, initial references to such disorders were made as early as the beginning of the 20th century, with terms like minimal brain dysfunction and hyperkinetic disorder of childhood, to name a few. In educational settings, the term emotional and behavioral disorders is also frequently used. Etiology and pathogenesis of ND is still a matter of much debate, and a wide range of factors ranging ...

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