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The impact of infectious diseases remains a significant burden of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries worldwide. Early in the history of human societies, the extreme burden of infectious diseases was related to ineffective treatments to eliminate or curtail pathogens in affected people. In the mid-1900s, Alexander Fleming discovered—by accident—strains of Penicillium fungus that inhibited the growth of bacteria, changing medical practice forever. He brought the principles to humanity for the development of chemicals (antibiotics) that were able to control (bacteriostatic) or to eliminate (bactericide) microbes.

Antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs that affect the growth of bacteria and other organisms by different cellular mechanisms at different structural components at a given moment and place or at different moments and places. Antibiotics can also be defined ...

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