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Renate Künast addressing a 2005 German Green Party convention in Oldenburg, Germany. A coalition of the German Greens and the Social Democrats was able to introduce a number of popular environmental reforms, including an ecotax, agricultural innovations, and ambitious renewable energy legislation by the early 2000s.
Photo credit: Wikipedia/Till Westermayer

In liberal democratic settings it is common that political parties are related to social movements. If articulate agents represent them, movements will likely attempt to affect the exercise of power by the state by working through existing political parties or forming new ones. The distinctive feature of “green” parties is their postindustrial and global orientation in the progressive tradition, the corresponding social profile of most activists, and an electorate encompassing middle-class professionals. Measured by election results and ...

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