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When he coined the term in 1866, Ernst Haeckel defined ecology as “the total science of the connections of the organism to the surrounding external world.” Today, the word ecology is commonly used within green philosophy in two different senses. The first sense defines ecology as the study of relationships among biological and nonbiological processes making up ecosystems and the biosphere (as well as referring to the systems themselves being studied). The second sense defines ecology as a philosophical position emphasizing the interconnectedness of human societies with the natural world, as well as the social movement dedicated to putting that philosophy into practice.

Development of Scientific Ecology

The idea of the world as an interdependent system exists in varying forms in a variety of cultures, but the ...

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