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In contrast to the mainstream environmental movement's emphasis on lifestyle changes and technology, deep green theory focuses on entire systems of power, including industries and institutions. Copsa Mica, Romania, shown here, became one of Europe's most polluted towns mainly because of factory emissions from government-owned heavy industry.

Deep green theory (DGT) is a critique of the ethics of “deep ecology” put forward by writers such as Richard Sylvan and David Bennett. Distinctions are made between “non-ethical living,” which includes anthropocentric exploitation of the environment, and three ethical positions: “shallow,” “intermediate,” and “deep” green ethics. Deep green theory develops Arne Naess’ concept of deep ecology or “ecosophy,” which rejects the anthropocentric for ecocentric models of living, with human life and ecology coexisting equally. However, deep green ...

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