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A lamb and ewe on a farm in New Zealand, where nearly all beef, lamb, and dairy products are derived from free-range animals. Most such products in the United States are produced in profitable but ethically questionable concentrated animal feeding operations.

Animal ethics refers to values that should govern human relationships with domestic and wild animals. In addition to acts of deliberate gratuitous cruelty, where a person tortures an animal in order to enjoy its suffering, areas of concern include everyday activities such as the raising of animals for food (especially those raised in concentrated animal feeding operations, CAFOs), research, product testing, hunting and fishing, and sport and entertainment. Objections to some forms of these activities often focus on effects on human health or on ...

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