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From the time of Plato and Aristotle, philosophers have sought to answer questions regarding existence, values, and ways of knowing. Philosophers have primarily addressed the human condition. With the onset of the environmental crisis, a new specialization has emerged that considers how we define relationships and responsibilities to nonhuman beings. The environmental crisis can be defined through multiple lenses, including the effects of pollution, destruction of habitat, decimation of plant and animal species, and a declining quality of life. The effect of humans on the environment is a continually debated issue, with those maintaining an anthropocentric view insisting that the resources of the planet are primarily defined in their utilitarian relationship to humans, while others like deep ecologist Arne Naess argue that humans must respect ...

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