A U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service official checks on a prescribed burn to improve wildlife habitat in the Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge in Oregon in April 2008. The emphasis on continued monitoring and research in adaptive management projects provides vital data for future management efforts.

Photo credit: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

Because of the complexity of the systems undergoing manipulation, efforts in ecological restoration have frequently been met with ambiguous outcomes and results. Biophysical complexity in terms of the structure and function of ecosystems is not the only confounding factor, however. Often, multiple competing social factors influence the outcomes and interpretations of ecological restoration work. In addition, scientific uncertainty and ambiguity can cloud the analysis of restoration success. Finally, environmental changes contribute the possibility of ...

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