Consumer activism has evolved over the years, from the early days of the cooperative movement to the contemporary era of political consumerism. Consumer activism can take a variety of forms, but the rights, consciousness, and interests of consumer segments lie at its heart. Consumer activists are thus cause-oriented, as they seek to bring about change within the marketplace—usually through protest, campaigning, boycotts (refusal to buy particular products, e.g., that are highly polluting), and “buycotts” (only buying brands that fulfill particular criteria based on human, social, and environmental capital)—and their attention can focus on all or combinations of stakeholders who influence the ethos and behavior of the market, including other consumers. In turn, companies are increasingly recognizing the value of consumer activists in aiding their innovation ...

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