The ubiquity of computers has had a considerable effect on energy consumption. Although generally making life and work more efficient, computers' electricity consumption is considerable, with their energy consumption being greater than anything they have replaced, burning energy even when not in use. Furthermore, rapid turnover of computers and peripherals—with many consumers and corporate customers replacing their computers every few years—leads to a great deal of material waste, little of which is recycled or biodegradable. The environmental impact of computer use was not fully understood or foreseen at the time personal computers and office computers were introduced; computing caught on with such rapid popularity that, as with automobiles before them and factory smokestacks before that, the problem was widespread by the time it was recognized. ...

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