Government regulation has proven necessary to achieve many green goals. Although the prospect of corporate profit may encourage the development of biofuel and other alternative fuel sources, or the sales of hybrid cars, there are many areas in need of green policies and regulations where a profit motive does not exist. The benefits of preventing water, soil, and air pollution; of conserving water; of protecting biodiversity; and of preventing deforestation, are analogous to the gains of pure research compared to applied research. Although applied research—such as creating tape that has more adhesive power, or more energy-efficient refrigerators—leads to a direct benefit to the researcher's employer, the benefits of research into the human genome or the origins of the solar system are either intangible or ...

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