Bonding agents are called adhesives or glues. They may be made from natural substances or artificial materials. They bind together metals, wood, fabric, ceramics, plastics, composite materials, or virtually any material known. Because of the rising price of oil, scientific investigators have begun a search for natural adhesive materials. At the present time, many are known but are not commercially profitable.

Adhesives have been used by humans for thousands of years. The natural glues have varied from region to region because of the limited materials available locally. One of the simplest adhesives has been made from gluten in flour or cornstarch. Other binding materials have been made from natural resins or from animals. Glue from animals is made by boiling the connective tissues to make protein ...

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