Cradle-to-cradle (C2C) is based on the principle that the whole life cycle of products and services needs to be redesigned so that every waste is a raw material for another round of production, service, or use. It aims to create systems that are both ecoefficient and waste-free, and can be been applied to industrial designs and manufacturing as well as urban environments, buildings, economics, and social systems.

Any production process will produce some waste, and traditionally most of this waste has ended up in landfills. “Cradle-to-grave” is a process by which companies take responsibility for the disposal of the goods they produce (usually as a waste product of the production process), but the waste is not necessarily reused or recycled. Not much thought is given to ...

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