Organic food and farming developed through the 20th century in response to crises in the farmed environment and technological innovations in farming and food technologies. Organic food and farming is based on not using nitrogen fertilizers, synthetic pesticides or insecticides, prophylactic antibiotics, artificial hormones, or genetically engineered plants or animals. Instead of using these technologies, the farm is managed to ensure that fertility is gained with compost, manures and leguminous plants, companion planting, and encouragement of natural predators. Plant-based insecticides are used to control insects, with homeopathy and less-intensive production techniques used to secure animal welfare. To ensure that organic food is produced in accordance with the principles and ethos of the organic movement, farms and food processors are inspected and certified, allowing the product ...

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