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KELVIN WAVES AFFECTING weather and climate occur in both the oceans and the atmosphere. These low-frequency, gravity-driven waves propagate vertically and parallel to boundaries (e.g., equator, coastline, air masses, and topography). Kelvin waves are nondispersive and carry energy from one point to another. The height or amplitude of a Kelvin wave is highest near the boundary where it propagates; the wave height decreases as the wave moves farther away from the boundary. In the Northern Hemisphere, the waves propagate anticlockwise, and in the Southern Hemisphere, the waves propagate clockwise. The flow of the Kelvin wave balances pressure perpendicular to the boundary by the forces of gravity and the Coriolis effect.

Kelvin waves in the ocean form as coastal waves or equatorial waves, both of which are ...

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