THE CLIMATIC SYSTEM is constituted by four intimately interconnected subsystems—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere—which evolve under the action of macroscopic driving and modulating agents, such as solar heating, Earth's rotation, and gravitation. The climate system features many degrees of freedom, which make it complicated, and nonlinear interactions taking place on a vast range of time-space scales accompanying sensitive dependence on initial conditions, which makes it complex. The climate is defined as the set of statistical properties of the observable physical quantities of the climatic system.

The evaluation of the accuracy of numerical climate models and the definition of strategies for their improvement are crucial issues in the Earth system scientific community. On one hand, climate models of various degrees of complexity constitute tools of fundamental importance ...

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