THE NATIONAL ACADEMY of Sciences (NAS) is an honorific society incorporated by the U.S. Congress and signed into law on March 3, 1863, with the mandate to “investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art” when requested to do so by the government. The NAS advises policymakers and its private sponsors on technical matters, and promotes the advancement of science and its use for the public welfare. The NAS is one of four organizations that comprise the National Academies, which also include the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. The NAS organized the National Research Council in 1916, as its operational arm. The National Research Council is now the primary operating agency of ...

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