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A CLIMATE MODEL is a computer-based representation of the Earth system. Climate models solve mathematical equations that describe the planetary energy budget, with the aim of understanding and reproducing the processes that control climate. Climate models differ widely in their complexities; some consider only the balance of energy entering and leaving the Earth, whereas others attempt to describe the entire climate system, including the complex interactions between different components of the planet (such as the ocean and the atmosphere).

The first climate models were developed to study fundamental processes in the Earth system. These models attempted to capture the broad features of the climate and tried to reproduce the current climate state. Since this time, the issue of human-induced (anthropogenic) climate change has changed the ...

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