The Republic of Turkey is the Turkish nationstate located on the shores of the Mediterranean and Black seas at the crossroads between Europe and the Middle East; it was established in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The 1982 constitution defines modern Turkey as a secular democratic republic and a social welfare state, respecting human rights and the rule of law. Its capital is Ankara, its flag is red with a white crescent and a star, and the official language is Turkish. Turkey is situated in Asia Minor (Anatolia) and in a small portion in eastern Thrace, stretching from east to west between Asia and Europe. The total area of Turkey is 780,580 square kilometers (301,384 square miles), 97% of which ...

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