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The United Republic of Tanzania, located south of Kenya in East Africa, has existed within its current boundaries only since 1964. At that time, the former, largely Christian, British colony of Tanganyika merged with the Muslim island nation of Zanzibar, combining the two names into a new one, Tanzania. Tanzania continues to be a Christian and Muslim nation, and its shoreline has been a part of religious exchanges in the western Indian Ocean for centuries. Christian missions have been active on the mainland since the late 19th century. In recent decades, Tanzania has, like many African countries, become a laboratory for trans-regional religious movements, both Muslim and Christian. Concurrently, indigenous religious practices persist.

While most Tanzanians—approximately 38 million in 2007—profess either Islam or Christianity, the ...

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