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Escape from violence is one of the oldest motivations for people to migrate. Within the modern world of sovereign territorial nation-states, various kinds of forced migrants are captured by the category of “refugees.” The standard definition is given in Article 1 of the Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, adopted by the United Nations in 1951, according to which a refugee is a person who

owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion is forced to migrate involuntarily across an international boundary and remain outside his country of nationality.

While this (legal) categorization of refugees might obscure similarities with involuntary migrants who seek refuge from interstate or civil wars, humanitarian crises, ...

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