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Reform Judaism emerged as part of a larger Jewish response to modernity. The term Reform Judaism is used today to refer to a movement or “stream” of Judaism that involves institutional leadership, universities with rabbinical and other training programs, and a particular approach to Jewish living in the modern world. It is also known as Liberal Judaism and Progressive Judaism. The movement began in western Europe, and the majority of its leaders, institutions, and practices developed in Germany. Historically, the movement's cohesion evolved only gradually and with much internal debate. Due to the extreme differences between eastern and western Europe in Jewish legal emancipation and its accompanying social changes, Jews in western Europe encountered the challenges of assimilation much earlier than did their counterparts in ...

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