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The Netherlands is a western European kingdom located in the delta between Belgium and Germany. Also known as Holland and the Dutch Republic, the Kingdom of the Netherlands was established as a parliamentary monarchy in 1848, a process that was completed with the constitutional reform of 1917. Its predecessor was the Dutch Republic (1581–1795). The origin of the Netherlands lies in the struggle for political independence in the Eighty Years War with Spain (1568–1648). The political-religious antagonism between Protestants and Catholics was an important factor in this conflict. In 1572, the Low Countries’ governments installed a reorganized (“reformed”) church for the people, following a model that was partly inspired by John Calvin's ideas. Despite the popular image of Calvinist confessional dominance, the Low Countries have ...

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