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Monaco is located in the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, surrounded on three sides by France. Monaco is divided into five different areas: (1) Monaco-Ville, the old fortified town; (2) the Condamnie, the harbor area; (3) Monte Carlo; (4) Fontvielle, a man-made waterfront area; and (5) Moneghetti, which shares a border with Cap d'Ail.

Monaco has been ruled by the Grimaldi family since 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi disguised himself as a monk and seized the fortress of Monaco. He led an army into the fortress, retrieving it in the name of the pope. In 1793, French Revolutionary forces captured Monaco, and Monaco remained under French rule until 1814. The Franco-Monagasque Treaty of 1861 granted sovereignty to Monaco; despite Monaco being a sovereign state, France is ...

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