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According to liberal Muslims, there is no clash between Islam and liberalism: individual freedom, democracy, cultural and religious pluralism, human rights, and gender equality are all sharable values. They legitimize the “reopening” of the gates of ijtihād (which means “effort to reason independently”), to interpret sacred scriptures in modern ways. Today, their main challenge is to extend their thoughts to popular audiences.

The expression liberal Islam has different interpretations, but it is possible to distinguish two main meanings related to its adjective. The first one refers to the value of liberty, and it is generally characterized by an academic approach and a full appreciation of Western liberalism. The second one refers to the process of liberation from symbolic and material oppressions, and it is characterized ...

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