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Just war is an ethical theory that may be spoken of in two ways. The first designates a particular set of notions that may be described as the “polit-icomilitary doctrine” of the Western world. From its inception in ancient Rome, the idea of bellum iustum (just war) may be traced through the teaching of the Christian churches, in the development of international law, in military manuals, and in the writings of contemporary publicists.

In a second sense, just war conveys a more widespread set of notions. A survey of world civilizations indicates that human beings have developed ways of distinguishing right from wrong in matters of war. Given the fact of international integration, it is important to compare the just war idea with political and military ...

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