Anti-Semitism is the negative perception of Jews, manifestations of which range from verbally expressed antipathy to physical violence toward Jewish individuals, their properties, institutions, communities, and the state of Israel. Expressions of anti-Semitism date back to ancient times and have been evolving ever since, having gone through periods of appeasement and escalation. Prejudice toward Jews can be rooted in a religious, ethnic, cultural, economic, or political background, depending on particular historical situations and social contexts. In the contemporary world, not only do all of these factors remain valid but anti-Semitic sentiment also has been altered by the processes of globalization and the globalization backlash. Therefore, in the 21st century, anti-Semitism constitutes a highly complex phenomenon and continues to be an influential ideology and a ...

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