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The 20th century saw the rise of conservative politicized movements in the world's religions. Those movements have often been categorized together under the label fundamentalism.

American Protestant Fundamentalism

In the North American context, there were at least three social forces that gave rise to the movement that took the name fundamentalism: (1) sweeping economic changes with the industrial revolution, (2) restructuring of gender roles and expectations with the move from rural-agrarian to urban-industrial lifestyles, and (3) the intellectual-theological challenges arising from biblical criticism, historicism, and comparative religion. Nineteenth-century evangelicalism split into two camps, often called modernist and fundamentalist, divided over the proper relationship between religion and culture. Modernists saw religion as a part of culture that changes over time with the changing needs of a changing ...

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