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Ethnic nationalism has come to mean nationalism based on membership through genetic and cultural inheritance—based on blood and often, though not always, consisting of members of the same religious group—as opposed to nationalism that is inclusive and open for outsiders to join. Ethnic nationalism is often understood in opposition to civic nationalism, which is conceived of as mass, civic, and democratic. Within this paradigm, ethnic nationalism is interpreted as a reactionary force among ethnolinguistic groups (or, more accurately, reactionary elites who mobilize such groups on ethnic grounds) that seek to either maintain or increase their power vis-à-vis emerging civic nationalist democratic states. The word ethnic stems from the Ancient Greek ethnos meaning “people” or “group,” but it has often been used to denote “out”-groups rather ...

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