Motivation can be defined as the driving force behind all of the actions of an individual, and achievement motivation can be defined as the need for success or attainment of excellence. This entry discusses motivation theories, behavior that predicts achievement, the role intrinsic motivation plays in creativity, and motivation in relation to gifted students and gifted underachievers.

Motivation Theories

Murray's Concept of Needs

Henry Murray, working as director of the Harvard Psychological Clinic, was active in developing a theory of motivation throughout the period from 1930 to 1960; his major assumption was that behavior is driven by an internal state of disequilibrium, or a lack of something, that drives the individual to action. Murray classified needs as primary or biological (food, water, air, sex, and avoidance of pain) ...

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