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Brainstorming is a technique for producing creative ideas in group idea-generation sessions. First developed in the 1930s by Alex Osborn, an advertising executive, it became very popular in the 1950s. Although research on brainstorming effectiveness has yielded mixed results, brain-storming is still widely used in business today. The basis for brainstorming is the idea that creativity is enhanced by participation in groups but may also be reduced because group members are apprehensive about how their ideas will be evaluated by others. To take advantage of the stimulation provided by the group environment while minimizing the inhibiting processes, Osborn laid out a set of rules for group brainstorming. The rules encourage a high degree of innovation, encourage exaggerated thinking, emphasize quantity, forbid criticism, and promote elaboration ...

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