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Learning is a broad term that refers to any response change as a result of experience (e.g., habituation or classic conditioning). When it comes to skill learning, such as learning to play an instrument, to solve mathematical problems, or to appreciate a Shakespearean play, the term intentional learning is typically used, rather than incidental learning. Learning in formal education settings can be best characterized as an active, motivated process of acquiring cognitive representations and structures (knowledge), skills (routines and procedures that serve specific functions), and dispositions (certain ways of thinking, modus operandi) relative to important aspects of the physical, social, and symbolic worlds. Historically, three broadly conceptualized metaphors have been used to guide learning theory and research: learning as forming stimulus-response associations (the behaviorist/empiricist view), ...

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