Many educators believe that intelligence and other forms of talent are fixed, quantifiable, and unchangeable; that intelligence is an entity displayed in one's measurable performance. Doing well means that one has ability; doing poorly means that one doesn't have ability. This view of the intelligent self influences effort. When people view their intelligence as fixed, they strive to obtain positive evaluations of their ability and to avoid displaying evidence of inadequacies in comparison with others. This entry defines habits of mind, lists the habits of minds associated with intellectual achievement, and describes the impact of teaching of these attitudes and skills.

More recently, psychologists have suggested that intelligence is composed of a continuously expandable repertoire of mental habits that can be learned, nurtured, and grown—habits of ...

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